To Crate or Not to Crate


When to use a crate

Providing a crate is important for at least as long as your dog is not yet house-trained - which likely is the case if you have a new puppy, and possibly is the case if you have a new rescue dog. A house-trained dog is one that will comply with all your house rules. House-trained comprises far more than Housebreaking a dog (potty training, toilet training).

Once your dog is fully house-trained, you can (and should) give your dog free run of the house all the time, ie even when you are away. When fully house-trained, nothing speaks against it, and a LOT speaks for it. Not least, only a German Shepherd that can freely reach every part of the house can be a good protector of every part of the house!

However, it is better to leave the crate in its place even when you are convinced that your dog is fully house-trained: Just like the dog would in nature, your dog may often prefer to retreat to his/her own den, especially when feeling unwell, at night, and when dozing. A small space where your dog can nestle down and feel warm and safe.

Purpose of a crate

The purpose of a crate is to provide your dog with a shelter, a place where the dog can doze, sleep, play with toys while lying down, and chew on the provided chew toy - all while feeling safe.

dog crateConversely, a kennel we consider a place where you can lock your dog away if you fear that (s)he would otherwise say make a mess in your house or frighten small children or whatever - because you have not yet house-trained your dog. If we can agree on this for now, then a kennel will have a lockable door and typically even a roof, while a crate is unlikely to have a roof or a door at all. On the photo you see the crate of My New Puppy which is no more than two panels of thin plywood as wall protection and the Westpaw nap mat f because we don't even have a kennel, and because our dogs always have free run of the house.

Vendors and commercial sites do not distinguish crate and kennel as clearly, and indeed they may not offer a crate at all, see next.

What crate to use

Commercial crates are neither necessary nor the most appropriate for your dog's needs. Why?

Dogs need to feel safe when they doze or sleep. Dogs feel safe when they doze or sleep in a place where they feel they can hide, so that they are not seen while not alert, and where they can observe the entrance to their hiding place, so that they can react fast.

This is all the more important for you if you have a German Shepherd as protection dog. The whole idea of having family protection dogs or better, trained protection dogs, fails when you lock your German Shepherd in a kennel or outside in the backyard or garden. German Shepherd barking doesn't give you a German Shepherd protection dog!

Imagine an intruder enters your house through a front window. Yes, the German Shepherd barking will wake you up, but also the intruder will have lots of time to harm you if you "safely" locked away your dog. An experienced intruder will notice immediately whether you have a barking dog that's locked up, or whether you have a dog that is free and waiting to attack him. For more, see Protection dog training.

Best crate for dogs

The best crate for dogs is one that suffices both these primary requirements. In addition, a dog den needs to be warm without being overheated, draft-free, and soft on the ground. Fresh water supply MUST be within the dog's reach, day and night. Don't worry "but the dog will pee at night": Not even a puppy does, as I have clearly documented in the New Puppy Diary.

Therefore, the best crate for dogs is one that's just a wooden box, with one side being open except for a say 2 cm or 1 in threshold, and the other sides reaching just above the dog's body when lying down. The crate floor has a thick blanket like the Westpaw nap mat. Wash the nap mat weekly with a non-smelling and naturally mild cleaning product. The crate has no roof! It is easy to clean by just reaching over the side panels. Put a water bowl in front of the entrance. That's it!

This is the best crate for dogs - not necessarily the best crate for you, and not the best crate for commercial crate producers. ;-)

Why is it not necessarily the best crate for you? Because in the beginning, when your dog is not yet house-trained, you may prefer a den for your puppy that has a roof too and is lockable (ie a kennel). Until housebroken a kennel can help reduce potty accidents, and until fully house-trained a kennel can help reduce dog chewing, dog scratching, etc.

With an UNtrained dog you will have to strike a compromise between what's the best crate for dogs long-term and what's the best crate for you in the short-term.

If you do all parts of Dog House Training right, then a German Shepherd puppy can usually be fully house-trained before age six months the latest, while housebroken within a few DAYS! If you work from home or at least one family member is home most of the time, then you may not need to buy a kennel at all!

dog house training

Do not make the mistake to think "If I get a covered lockable kennel, my puppy can't have potty accidents elsewhere in the house". It doesn't work like this, because you must not lock a puppy away for more than an hour anyway - when the pup needs to empty the small bladder! Any healthy dog will try to avoid to soil the own den for as long as the dog can hold the bladder tight.

What if you fear you won't get the puppy housebreaking right, and your gorgeous German Shepherd puppy may have a few potty accidents in the house? Then you may want to get one of those dog potties as described in Housebreaking a dog, and I would also suggest that then you keep your puppy ideally in a tiled area of your house during the first week or two.

Where to put the crate

Place the crate where there's no permanent running around of family members (say tumultuous children during playtime), no draft, no immediate radiator heat, and no wiring from electrical items like fridges etc. But don't put the crate too far away from where the family members usually remain during the day. Ideal would be a corner of an annex to your living room if you have that.

Why? Because your dog should have the chance to see and hear what's going on in the house, but likewise (s)he should have the chance to back out when (s)he needs to doze or sleep during the day, or when (s)he doesn't feel well.

Do not follow the advice you can find in some places, to regularly change the crate when your puppy grows up, or even to move the crate around between day and night time. This would confuse the instincts of your German Shepherd and may promote aggression and anxiety. Place the crate in its permanent place straight away.

When your puppy grows up, it's best to have no more than one change in size made to the crate. A commercial kennel should have a divider which makes it easy to adapt the size of the kennel to the size of your puppy (but only do it once, about mid-term). A self-made crate you would simply extend to one side.

However, you do not need to do this! It doesn't matter if in the beginning the crate is much larger than your puppy, because in nature a puppy wouldn't have a den of its own size either. Indeed, your German Shepherd puppy likely will be happy and develop well if (s)he has the same crate throughout!

Note that if the crate is in a separate room, always leave the door a bit open so that you don't cut off the German Shepherd's instinct that aims to protect you, and that your dog doesn't feel lonely or anxious either. This is all the more important while you have a puppy, but it is relevant at every age in order to keep your dog calm and healthy.

Benefits of Dog Crate Training and Puppy Crate Training

Once your dog uses the crate voluntarily, the crate will allow your dog more time to retreat from the family action and to relax. This will contribute to your dog's overall health, and it will improve your relationship with your dog when you are together.

In addition, mid- and long-term, Crate training dogs will reduce the amount of required Behavior Training, see House training a puppy. This means, voluntary crate use will reduce dog whining, dog barking, dog separation anxiety, dog aggression, and destructive behaviour.

Finally, crate training dogs helps to prevent that your bed or the couch is becoming your dog's primary domicile, and it also aids the dog housebreaking process if that's still an issue too. In short, crate use is very beneficial regardless of your dog's age.

What a Crate means to a German Shepherd

Under normal circumstances German Shepherds love to use their crates. This has genetic roots and even when you leave a German Shepherd out in the wild, the dog will prepare his/her own small space to nestle down in, so that (s)he keeps warm and safe. A crate performs this function perfectly and is giving your dog a safe space that the dog can consider and guard as his/her own. All dogs need this small place to retreat, especially when feeling unwell, at night, and when dozing.

If you deprive your GSD of this, your dog is likely to become anxious, trying to herd and control the entire room or house. This is the most common reason for destructive behavior. Always remember that German Shepherds are strong and active herding dogs by nature. The use of a kennel is entirely unsuitable for this dog breed!

Your overall aim should be that your German Shepherd uses the crate voluntarily and on his/her own initiative, and that your dog has free run of the house/premises once fully house-trained.

If you have several German Shepherd puppies, give each of them their own crate, but never force them to use their own crate. They will usually use their own crate automatically later, when they feel like it.

Crate training and You

Both you and your German Shepherd will need to learn how to use the crate. For example, it's your dog's crate, not yours, so never pull out the blanket while your GSD is in the crate, and don't step into the crate. Likewise, don't use force to get your German Shepherd into the crate or out of it. Be considerate about this small space which your dog may treat as his/her own. Don't upset your dog or disturb the dog's guarding instinct.



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    I have a big open kennel that I used from my last dog when she was having problems in the house. As you mentioned, my puppy really doesn't like the big open sided kennel, so very rarely even looks at it. I was wondering if you could provide me with your crate plans? I haven't gotten that far in your periodicals yet. I can make one myself, but since you seem to have a much better handle on she actually needs, I would appreciate any help you could provide.


    Also, I have a beagle/terrier mix. Should I build her a crate also? They both have beds in my room which is where they currently sleep, but don't want to build something for my GSD and have it be a problem between the two of them.

    Thanks again, I really appreciate you taking the time to provide all this helpful information.


      Yes sorry Rob, for you as subscriber here's the Building-a-Den Periodical.

      Re/ the beagle/terrier mix (and the GSD): If they both have their "crate" in your room, why change it? I mean, the crate (den) should only be for sleeping, feeling unwell, etc, NOT for punishment. And during the day I assume the dogs want to stay close to you anyway, hence just put down a blanket for them?
      Of course a padded nap mat like this is much more comfy as resting place.
      Or did I misunderstand your question?


        No you answered great. From the articles I could access I thought they needed a "den." They love their beds in my room and sleep on them each night. When they are in the living room, Nikki, my GSD puppy, moves to 4-5 different spots while napping. So, I will get them a pad to sleep on in that room so that they can have a designated area and that should help with that issue.

        As always really appreciate your help and advice.


        You are most welcome Rob!


    I have a 8 1/2 old German Shep and he uses the doggie door to poop but not to pee? The only time he pee's is when we take him to the door. Will he eventually go out of this or are we doing something wrong? Also, his crate has been sized for him and he has peed in it the last 3 nights and last night he pooped. I was placing his crate in the bathroom, would it be better to keep it in the family room (normal spot) or next to my bed?


    I recently adopted a 8 yr old German Shepard and hes completely house broken. The previous owner would keep him in his crate at night and during the day. I bought the biggest crate available but at 90 pounds he's a big boy. Last night was his first night inside and it seemed every time moved he would hit the side of the kennel. I would just as soon not have him in it at all. Would this be a good or a bad idea? I have heard conflicting stories because he is so structured but it seems cruel to put him in that confined space. when he sleeps he likes to stretch out I have noticed and he can't do that in the crate.



      We have NEVER kept a dog in a "crate" (correct: kennel), your observations of confined space are right. And if he's "completely housebroken" I can't see why you wasted money on a kennel at all?

      There are massive differences between housebreaking and house training though. Still, even My New Puppy has had free run of the house from the beginning, and even at night since age 28 weeks.

      Hope this gives you confidence/motivation?


    Hi, Tim. We have a 13 week old female pup and are having issues with her biting. It started to get worse when we all went back to work full-time after several short periods of time off work. She is crated while we are at work and then is out with us until bedtime when she is recrated. I feel like this is causing some pent up aggression, etc., or something. She is wanting to chew on baseboards and furniture right now, so I don't feel comfortable leaving her out. Her biting gets to the point of ridiculous sometimes and we don't know what to do. Any additional advice from what I've read on your site as far as crating goes and the biting? She went from a very sweet puppy to something else entirely when we started crating her. I would love to keep her with us at night in our room, but am unsure of what she might chew or do while we sleep. Help!


    Hello. We have a 1 year old male GSD. My husband insisted on him being an outside dog. He made a nice kennel in the garage. He comes in the house with us when we are home, but goes back out at night. I cannot stand it. I want to try to change it. Is it too late to housebreak our dog and train him to have good potty manners in the house too?


      In House Training Dogs To Behave Well is a LOT that would help you, incl. "Transitioning an Outdoor Kennel Dog to an Indoor Crate Dog".

      Yes, I agree with you, and disagree with your husband. Why? All explained well in the book. Get your husband to STUDY the book. ;-)


    I have a 3 yr old German
    Shepherd, his name is Remi. We have had a issue with him jumping our wall in our back yard . I don't want to use the electric fence, I don't want him to be harmed in anyway. we are trying to see if a dog crate is good for hm . we recently adopted him from a family member and I love him. we also recently moved to a new home im not sure if that has anything to do with this new thing he is doing. he sleeps inside with us. please help. thank you


      I agree, both seem to be the reason, new family and move afterwards is a LOT to digest and so will take time. To speed things up I would have the dog sleep in a separate room, not bedroom, and do everything else to establish ourselves as accepted Pack leader - how you know from our Periodicals. At 3ys I would reckon you'll have all under control within a week and he'll stop feeling Separation Anxiety and stop jumping too.


    I have a 9 month GSD that my fiance and I have been working to house train him. My fiance suggested we "crate train" him from the time we brought him home. We attempted the "crate training" and he just never took to being in his crate, so we tried just keeping him in our room at night, and the bathroom with a blanket during the day now. He has seemed to better with more space allowed, but he has also taken to destructive behavior (digging the drywall, and chewing/scratching the wood baseboards). We are also still experiencing some potty "accidents" in the house, that I suspect are behavioral based. Can anyone give any advice for me, since I am the one primarily caring for him and training.

    Thank you!


    My name is Dan, I'm buying a gas and it will be 8 weeks old. I already bought a xlarge crate with a divider. I want to move the crate from downstairs during the day to upstairs at night with me so I can watch over her. Is this OK to do, or should I just buy another crate for downstairs too


      Dan, you should throw the first crate in a large bin, save the 60 dollar that a second crate would cost, fork out 99 cent (still!), and watch what I have done. And that although this puppy was not even 5 weeks old. What I can do, you can do easily. So, just do it. With or without Nike shoes. :lol:

      If you then appreciate all the tips in this helpful present as much as I trust you will, simply transfer the $59 dollar difference to keep the lights on here.

      But this latter bit is not necessary in order to raise a puppy without a lockable crate, it's just the thought I had while I was contemplating how many new puppy owners are wasting money, nerves, and dog training opportunities buying a 60 dollar crate - instead of getting this helpful present that would guarantee they raise a healthy and well-behaved puppy.

      Ah well, we can't help everyone even though we try SO HARD...




    I have a 5 year old German shepherd. His name is tank.and i tried to put him in a crat. When we go some where. And he break s out of his crat. And i have out door kennel and he gets out of it.he rips a can i keep him in when i go shopping. Because. I have to take him with me.


      Reba, there's further reading linked right above (appropriately named Crate Training Dogs, lol). Once you click that and properly read it you'll have the solution to your question.


    I used a kennel for one week while I housebroke my dog. Thats all it took and then the kennel was gone. After that, her safe spot was behind a chair in the corner of the living room. She chose it herself and went there when she was tired. At four years old now, she still goes behind that chair. Most of the time she is always at my feet, and she has a bed in an adjoining room but she drags it over to me and will lie down on that (at my feet). She chose behind the chair on her own and is quite comfortable there. She seems to go behind the chair when she is satisfied that I am not going anywhere without her. She also had a bed in my bedroom but rarely sleeps there, as she prefers the landing on the stairs between floors. I think, though not sure, that she prefers that because she can see the upstairs and downstairs from that spot. Housetraining her was no problem at all, and I didn't need a crate. She was with me all the time and with a little help from your "Housetraining Guide" housetraining was a breeze. I did try a kennel for the car, but she refused to go into it, and I didn't want to force her. Instead I got a seat belt harness, and she can sit behind me while belted in. It works great and she is happy and comfortable with it. I have never used a crate as my dogs have always had free reign of the house and they would pick their own spots. My border collie denned under the desk and was perfectly happy there.

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